This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:03:21 1 History
00:03:30 1.1 Founding and early growth
00:08:06 1.2 Birmingham civil rights movement
00:10:52 1.3 Recent history
00:13:59 2 Geography
00:16:24 2.1 Suburbs
00:17:15 2.2 Cityscape
00:17:23 2.3 Climate
00:19:58 2.4 Earthquakes
00:20:47 3 Demographics
00:20:56 3.1 Census data
00:21:05 3.1.1 2010
00:21:45 3.1.2 2000
00:24:28 3.2 Religion
00:26:15 3.3 Crime
00:27:40 4 Economy
00:34:39 5 Arts and culture
00:40:04 5.1 Museums
00:41:22 5.2 Festivals
00:44:11 5.3 Other attractions
00:46:33 5.4 Cultural references
00:47:35 6 Sports
00:53:27 7 Government
00:55:01 7.1 State and federal representation
00:55:41 7.2 Political controversy
00:56:40 8 Education
00:59:09 9 Media
01:01:48 10 Urban planning
01:04:08 11 Infrastructure
01:04:17 11.1 Transportation
01:04:52 11.1.1 Highways
01:06:12 11.1.2 Public transport
01:07:46 11.2 Utilities
01:09:34 12 Notable people
01:09:43 13 Sister cities
01:09:59 14 See also
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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
Birmingham ( BUR-ming-ham) is a city located in the north central region of the U.S. state of Alabama. With an estimated 2017 population of 210,710, it is the most populous city in Alabama. Birmingham is the seat of Jefferson County, Alabama's most populous and fifth largest county. As of 2017, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 1,149,807, making it the most populous in Alabama and 49th-most populous in the United States. Birmingham serves as an important regional hub and is associated with the Deep South, Piedmont, and Appalachian regions of the nation.
Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, through the merger of three pre-existing farm towns, most notably Elyton. The new city was named for Birmingham, England, the UK's second largest city and, at the time, a major industrial city. The Alabama city annexed smaller neighbors and developed as an industrial center, based on mining, the new iron and steel industry, and rail transport. Most of the original settlers who founded Birmingham were of English ancestry. The city was developed as a place where cheap, non-unionized immigrant labor (primarily Irish and Italian), along with African-American labor from rural Alabama, could be employed in the city's steel mills and blast furnaces, giving it a competitive advantage over unionized industrial cities in the Midwest and Northeast.
From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was a primary industrial center of the southern United States. Its growth from 1881 through 1920 earned it nicknames such as "The Magic City" and "The Pittsburgh of the South". Its major industries were iron and steel production. Major components of the railroad industry, rails and railroad cars, were manufactured in Birmingham. Since the 1860s, the two primary hubs of railroading in the "Deep South" have been Birmingham and Atlanta. The economy diversified in the latter half of the 20th century. Banking, telecommunications, transportation, electrical power transmission, medical care, college education, and insurance have become major economic activities. Birmingham ranks as one of the largest banking centers in the U.S. Also, it is among the most important business centers in the Southeast.
In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine (formerly the Medical College of Alabama) and the University of Alabama School of Dentistry since 1947. In 1969 it gained the University of Alabama at Birmingham, one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System. It is home to three private institutions: Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, and Miles College. The Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, dentistry, optometry, physical therapy, pharmacy, law, engineering, and nursing. The city has three of the state's five law schools: Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, and Miles Law School. Birmingham ...