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How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome
 
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What happens when microbes talk to your brain? Kurzgesagt Newsletter: http://eepurl.com/cRUQxz Support us on Patreon so we can make more videos (and get cool stuff in return): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Kurzgesagt merch: http://bit.ly/1P1hQIH The MUSIC of the video: Soundcloud: http://bit.ly/2kqh1a8 Bandcamp: http://bit.ly/2y2YLbW Facebook: http://bit.ly/2qW6bY4 THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Brittany Mackinnon, Frank Ziems, Rami Rahal, Dinler Amaral Antunes, Janet Rothers, David Metzger, Luke Zehrung, Malcolm Bruce, Sebastián Schiavinato, MikeSkowron, Justin Benavides, Jayant Sahewal, Marty Otzenberger, Lor (aka FigmentForms on Tumblr), Nicu Farmache, Stan Mertens, Haakon T Nordli, Jacob, Shpend A. Mustafa, John Clendenin, Issam Rachidi, Rafael Pereira, carey armstrong, marscmd, Alexander Edlin, Andrew Walker, Jeffrey Pugh, Daniel Cecil, Ayur Pulle, Floyd T Pollard, Wesley De Cocq van Delwijnen, Georgios Zacharopoulos, thylakoide, AG HAbraken, Marc Bartscht, Tarald Sponnich, Nicole Matthews, Adam Simons, Nicole Hobday, Jack Macqueen, Maximilian Fink, Henoch Argaw, Joshua Phoenix, Peter Fintl, Hoang Viet, Richard Emerson, Nick Hofmeister, Zotin, Heron Cortizo, Hannah Beth, John, Aleksa Bjelogrlic, Fabio Palamedi, Jessica­Kim Danh, James Vilcek, Igor Vaisman, ilia, Flatag, Alex Leighton, Rebecca Percz, Fatima Chairez, James Buchanan, Sarah Spath, Hugo James Ludlow Brooks,Bulbul A Rajon Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2 How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome
The Microbiome: Vital Cells of Existence
 
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For every cell in your body, there’s another tiny single-celled creature that also calls your body home. Far from being germs we should eradicate, these ancient friends allow us to digest food, breathe air, and fight off disease. They were here long before us and will undoubtedly remain long after we’re gone. They are our microbiome, and after eons of cohabitation, we are finally getting to know one another better. Of course, we aren’t always the best of neighbors. Autoimmune diseases, allergies, depression, and Alzheimer’s may be diseases of an unhappy microbiome. PARTICIPANTS: Martin Blaser, Jo Handelsman, Rob Knight, and David Relman MODERATOR: Dr. Emily Senay MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS: https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/programs/wsf18_b_09/ This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation. - Subscribe to our YouTube Channel and ring the "bell" for all the latest from WSF - Visit our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/ - Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/worldsciencefestival/ - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest TOPICS: - Program introduction 03:12 - Participant introductions 03:40 - When do we acquire our microbiome? 04:50 - Connection between the microbiome and our immune system 07:00 - Using mice to study the microbiome 07:45 - When does your microbiome stabilize? 08:55 - What is the Human Microbiome Project? 11:20 - How unique is each person's microbiome? 14:02 - Mapping the microbiome on different areas of the body 14:54 - The effects of extensive antibiotic use on the microbiome and cause of modern diseases 15:19 - Are the microbes in dirt good for us? 18:01 - Rates of asthma in the Amish and Hutterites 19:50 - Hygiene hypothesis 21:20 - Antibiotic use and the rise of obesity in the US 23:25 - Obesity and the microbiome 25:05 - How do changes in the microbiome get passed from generation to generation? 29:30 - C. difficile and fecal transplants 33:20 - Can fecal transplants be used to treat other diseases? 37:57 - Connection between the gut and the brain 42:00 - Can the microbiome cause depression? 43:20 - How do you study depression in mice? 46:25 - Is there a strong association between what is happening in the gut and behavior? 49:35 - Is the microbiome connected to autism? 50:51 - How do the microbiomes of hunter-gatherers living in primitive conditions compared to people with high exposure to antibiotics? 52:45 - Is it possible that we'll never recapture our full ancestral microbiota diversity? 54:15 - How can we keep our microbiome happy and healthy? 56:51 - The role of the microbiome in precision medicine and drug efficacy 59:15 - Do probiotics really work? 1:03:04 PROGRAM CREDITS: - Produced by Nils Kongshaug - Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro - Opening film produced / directed by Vin Liota - Music provided by APM - Additional images and footage provided by: Getty Images, Shutterstock, Videoblocks, Kishony Lab at Harvard Medical School and Technion--Israel Institute of Technology, Mazmanian Lab at California Institute of Technology, CDC This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.
Views: 18213 World Science Festival
Molecular Data & the Microbiome
 
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Curtis Huttenhower is an Associate Professor of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and an Associate Member at the Broad Institute. In this video Dr. Curtis Huttenhower will present a lecture titled, “Molecular Data and the Microbiome.” Video Description High-throughput sequencing has become one of many technologies that can be integrated to enable culture-independent studies of microbial communities. These include both environmental microbes, such as those that influence agriculture or water quality, as well as the human microbiome and its roles in health and disease. The multi'omic combination of amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and other functional molecular data is helping to bridge "parts lists" of these microbial residents with their phenotypic and environmental effects. This raises two current computational challenges: how to provide the most precise bioinformatic solutions describing microbial community systems biology, and what new applications of these integrated data types can be developed to improve population health? Dr. Huttenhower will discuss computational profiling methods for the human microbiome, which provide strain-specific microbial identification and metabolic reconstruction. In combination with microbiome-appropriate statistical tools, these can thus associate microbial features with health outcomes and covariates in human populations to better understand immune and inflammatory disease. About the Speaker Dr. Curtis Huttenhower is an Associate Professor of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and an Associate Member at the Broad Institute. He was an analysis lead in the NIH Human Microbiome Project, the "HMP2," and currently leads the Human Microbiome Bioactives Resource. His lab focuses on computational methods for functional analysis of microbial communities, as well as microbiome epidemiology to link microbial community function to public health. View slides from this lecture: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1U36NyMinKAm1R2rwgRb0fJUFVHbeYS9J Visit our webpage to view archived videos covering various topics in data science: https://bigdatau.ini.usc.edu/data-science-seminars
The Human Microbiome
 
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Did you know a rich ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and viruses lives in your body? Watch this video to learn more about the role these microbes play in human health. In addition to the names referenced at the end of this video, Chanelle Adams also contributed to the development of the final script. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/scitoons/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/sci_toons?lang=en Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sci_toons/
Views: 9291 SciToons
The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease
 
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The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, February 22, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:07:59 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The vertebrate intestinal tract is colonized by hundreds of species of bacteria that outnumber the total cells in the host, yet must be compartmentalized and tolerated to prevent invasive growth and harmful inflammatory responses. A key function of commensal microbes is to contribute to the adaptive immune repertoire and to diverse lymphocyte effector functions. T cell responses against non-invasive commensals contribute to shaping the repertoire of effector/memory and regulatory T cells. How T cells elicited by commensal bacteria can influence autoimmunity is a central question that remains unsolved. The Littman Lab studies the antigenic specificity of microbiota-induced T cells and the mechanisms by which their functions are acquired upon interaction with distinct commensal species. His lab finds that Th17 cells, which are central to mucosal barrier defense but also participate in autoimmune disease, are induced by specific constituents of the microbiota, and acquire effector function only after additional exposure to endogenous adjuvants, such as the serum amyloid A proteins. The lab's studies in mice are not only relevant for human autoimmune diseases, many of which have Th17 cell involvement, but may also provide insights into how commensal microbe-specific T cell responses could be harnessed for mucosal vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Dan R. Littman, M.D., Ph.D., Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology at New York University School of Medicine Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?22148
Views: 6606 nihvcast
Dietary Supplement Practicum 2018--Emerging Science: The Microbiome and Nutrition
 
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(Bethesda, MD) In this presentation, Cindy D. Davis, Ph.D., director of grants and extramural activities at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements, defines the human microbiome and describes the evidence that diet and dietary supplements can modulate the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. She also describes the evidence that the gastrointestinal microbiome can influence the response to dietary components and the relationship between dietary components and the microbiome and chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This presentation is part of the 2018 Mary Frances Picciano Dietary Supplement Research Practicum sponsored by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). This 2.5-day annual event for faculty, students, and health practitioners provides a thorough overview of issues, concepts, unknowns, and controversies about dietary supplements and supplement ingredients. It also emphasizes the importance of scientific investigations to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and value of these products for health promotion and disease prevention as well as how to carry out this type of research. For more information: https://ods.od.nih.gov/Research/dsrp.aspx
Views: 547 NIHOD
From Correlation to Causation in Human Microbiome Studies - Rob Knight
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
All About the Human Microbiome
 
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ISB Assistant Professor and microbiome researcher Dr. Sean Gibbons discusses common questions about the human microbiome -- What is it? Can I change It? Is using Purell good or bad? What is a fecal transplant? -- in this fun, informative and engaging Q&A.
Non-Antibiotic Drugs Affect our Gut Bacteria
 
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The gut microbiome plays a vital role in metabolism, physiology, nutrition and immune response. Previous studies have shown that some non-antibiotic drugs can lead to changes in composition of the gut microbiome, but the extent of this is not understood. Scientists at EMBL have now screened the effects of 1,200 marketed drugs on the growth of 38 representative bacterial strains found in the human gut. This e-learning video showcases the story, methodology and findings from this breakthrough Nature publication, published on the 19th March 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25979 Find out more and take our quiz and interactive exercises by visiting our e-learning website https://www.embl.de/training/e-learning/drug_microbiome/index.html
Microbiome, Brain and Behavior - Ted Dinan
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Dan Littman (NYU / HHMI) 2: Shaping of Immune Responses by the Microbiota
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/th17 Th17 cells are important in our protective immune response to bacteria and fungi. They also can exist, however, in a pathogenic form that causes autoimmune disease. In his first lecture, Dan Littman discusses the opposing roles of Th17 cells. They protect mucosal surfaces from infection with bacteria and fungi, but they can also cause autoimmune inflammation. Using a mouse model of autoimmunity called experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), Littman and his lab have shown that there are two types of Th17 cells. Non-pathogenic Th17 cells are induced by the microbiota and protect barrier surfaces, while pathogenic Th17 cells are induced by the presence of IL-23, likely the result of inflammation elsewhere in the body. Both types Th17 cells secrete the cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, however, pathogenic Th17 cells also secrete interferon gamma (IFNγ) which induces further inflammation and autoimmune disease. In the last 10 years, several classes of innate lymphoid cells have been found to share similar cytokine profiles to Th17 cells and these cells appear to be another important layer in protecting surfaces in the gut and lung from infection. In his second talk, Littman explains that different commensal microbes in our gut elicit different T cell responses - either pathogenic or non-pathogenic. His lab is beginning to identify the pathogens and decipher the pathways that determines the host T cell response. This research has important clinical relevance since a cancer patient’s microbiota may help determine their response to chemotherapy. Microbiota that induce non-pathogenic Th17 cells are protective against autoimmunity but may decrease anti-tumor immunity, while microbiota that contribute to autoimmunity may enhance anti-tumor T cell responses. Speaker Biography: Dan Littman is the Helen and Martin Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology in the Department of Pathology and a professor in the Department of Microbiology at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine of New York University School of Medicine. He is also an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Littman discovered the excitement of science while he was an undergraduate student at Princeton University. He went on to receive his M.D. and Ph.D. from Washington University in St. Louis. As post-doc in Richard Axel’s lab at Columbia University, Littman isolated the genes for CD8 and CD4, molecules involved in T lymphocyte development. Littman then joined the faculty of the University of California, San Francisco where he was one of the first scientists to recognize that HIV infects T helper cells by binding to CD4. Since 1995, Littman has been based at NYU. Littman’s lab has continued to study the development and differentiation of T lymphocytes. They are interested in understanding how a normal protective immune response differs from a pathogenic response such as that found in inflammation and autoimmune disease. Currently, they are also investigating the importance of the microbiome in influencing immunity. Littman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science and the American Academy of Microbiology. His groundbreaking work has been recognized with many prizes including the 2004 New York City Mayor’s Award for Excellence in Science and Technology, the 2013 Ross Prize in Molecular Medicine, and the 2016 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science amongst others. Learn more about Littman’s research here: https://med.nyu.edu/skirball-lab/littmanlab/Home.html
Views: 2380 iBiology
Functional Analysis of Human Microbiome, Metagenomes, Metatranscriptomics... - Curtis Huttenhower
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Gut Restoration with Kiran from Microbiome Labs - The WHOLE Athlete Podcast 199
 
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Today we’re joined by an amazing guest, Kiran from Microbiome Labs. Kiran presents a webinar on gut restoration that you won’t want to miss! It’s fascinating just how important gut health is for so many things whether it’s racing, training, optimizing health, improving the aging process, food sensitivities, and more. It’s something everybody should be aware of. There’s a good chance that you could be experiencing issues due to poor gut health and don’t even realize it. This webinar will arm you with the knowledge you need to feel great and ensure your gut health is optimal. To order Megaspore Biotics visit: https://microbiomelabs.com/register/?ref=thewholeathlete Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/microbiomelabs/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/megasporebiotic?lang=en Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/megasporebiotic Website: https://microbiomelabs.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/microbiomelabs/ YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/megasporebiotic Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/microbiomelabs/ More about Kiran… Kiran Krishnan is a Research Microbiologist and has been involved in the dietary supplement and nutrition market for the past 17 years. He comes from a strict research background having spent several years with hands-on R&D in the fields of molecular medicine and microbiology at the University of Iowa. He left University research to take a position as the U.S. Business Development and Product Development lead for Amano Enzyme, USA. Amano is one of the world’s largest suppliers of therapeutic enzymes used in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries in North America. Kiran also established a Clinical Research Organization where he designed and conducted dozens of human clinical trials in human nutrition. Kiran is also a co-founder and partner in Nu Science Trading, LLC.; a nutritional technology development, research and marketing company in the U.S. Dietary Supplement and Medical Food markets. Most recently, Kiran is acting as the Chief Scientific Officer at Physician’s Exclusive, LLC. and Microbiome Labs. He has developed over 50 private label nutritional products for small to large brands in the global market. He is a frequent lecturer on the Human Microbiome at Medical and Nutrition Conferences. He conducts the popular monthly Microbiome Series Webinars through the Rebel Health Tribe Group practitioner training program, is an expert guest on National Radio and Satellite radio and has been a guest speaker on several Health Summits as a microbiome expert. He is currently involved in 9 novel human clinical trials on probiotics and the human microbiome. Kiran is also on the Scientific Advisory Board for 5 other companies in the industry. Kiran offers his extensive knowledge and practical application of the latest science on the human microbiome as it relates to health and wellness. *********************************** REPAIR. RECOVERY. REBUILD. Biohacks for the Athlete to improve performance in life and sports. The WHOLESTIC Method: Manual & Workbook: Transform the WHOLE you from the Inside Out https://www.amazon.com/dp/154061431X Life is Not a Race...It is a Journey: Learn how to pace the WHOLE you with The WHOLESTIC Method https://www.amazon.com/dp/1540572005 WEB: http://debbiepotts.net/ http://fitnessforwardstudio.com/ FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/thewholeathletepodcast ITUNES: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-whole-athlete-podcast/id951124097?mt=2
Human Gut Microbiome
 
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Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
Lora Hooper (UT Southwestern) 1: Mammalian gut microbiota: Mammals and their symbiotic gut microbes
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/ Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 7084 iBiology
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Bioconversion by Environmental and Host-Associated Bacteria
 
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Presented At: Microbiology & Immunology 2018 Presented By: Terence Crofts, PhD - Pathology and Immunology Postdoctoral Scholar, Dantas Lab, Washington University in St. Louis Speaker Biography: Dr. Crofts is currently a post-doctoral scholar at Washington University in St. Louis working with Dr. Gautam Dantas. One focus of his research has been the metabolic fate of antibiotics in the environment, a project that ties together antibiotic resistance and bacterial metabolism. A second focus is how early life antibiotic therapy alters the developing human gut microbiota in infants as well as the host immune system using a gnotobiotic mouse model I have developed. A third focus has been studying how the human microbiome interacts with pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying drug toxicity. Prior to this he received his Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of California, Berkeley, working with Dr. Michi Taga studying how bacterial producers of vitamin B12 analogs use enzyme-substrate specificity to avoid incorporating incorrect lower ligands from their environment. He began his career earning joint B.S. degrees in Molecular and Cellular Biology and Chemistry from the University of Illinois, where he completed an honor's research project on T-cell receptor specificity in the lab of Dr. David Kranz. He is looking forward to starting next fall at Northwestern University as a Research Assistant Professor, where he will continue to focus on understanding how the gut microbiota affects the efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals, including small molecules and biologics, as well as study how microbiota in the environment respond to and modify/degrade antimicrobials. Webinar: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Bioconversion by Environmental and Host-Associated Bacteria Webinar Abstract: The soil microbiome can produce, resist, or degrade antibiotics and even catabolize them. Resistance genes are widely distributed in the soil and may act as a reservoir for pathogen antibiotic resistance. Work done in the Dantas lab has identified high diversity of genes encoding antibiotic resistance across all antibiotic classes, but generally these genes are not at great risk of mobilization to pathogens. However, the sub-group of resistant, culturable Proteobacteria show both resistance to high concentrations of antibiotics and resistance across many antibiotic classes. These highly resistant Proteobacteria are related to human pathogens, and show evidence of increased horizontal gene transfer of resistance genes. Interestingly, many of these Proteobacteria are not only antibiotic resistant, they have also been found to be capable of antibiotic catabolism. Little is known about the enzymes, mechanisms, and pathways involved in antibiotic catabolism. We describe a pathway for penicillin catabolism in four strains of Proteobacteria. Genomic and transcriptomic sequencing revealed β -lactamase, amidase, and phenylacetic acid catabolon upregulation. Knocking out part of the phenylacetic acid catabolon or an apparent penicillin utilization operon (put) resulted in loss of penicillin catabolism in one isolate. A hydrolase from the put operon was found to degrade in vitro benzylpenicilloic acid, the β -lactamase penicillin product. To test the generality of this strategy, an Escherichia coli strain was engineered to co-express a β -lactamase and a penicillin amidase or the put operon, enabling it to grow using penicillin or benzylpenicilloic acid, respectively. Elucidation of additional pathways may allow bioremediation of antibiotic-contaminated soils and discovery of antibiotic-remodeling enzymes with industrial utility. Learning Objectives: 1. Antibiotics and pharmaceuticals are not privileged molecules, they can be modified or catabolized by microbes. 2. Metabolism of these molecules in unexpected ways can impact human health. Earn PACE/CME Credits: 1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-immunology-2018) 2. Watch the webinar on YouTube above or on the LabRoots Website (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-immunology-2018) 3. Click Here to get your PACE (Expiration date – September 13, 2020 01:30 PM) - https://www.labroots.com/credit/pace-credits/2971/third-party LabRoots on Social: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LabRootsInc Twitter: https://twitter.com/LabRoots LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/labroots Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/labrootsinc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/labroots/ SnapChat: labroots_inc
Views: 63 LabRoots
Establishing causality in microbiome studies
 
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Establishing causality in microbiome studies Views: Total views: 218, (142 Live, 76 On-demand) Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:03:06 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Rob Knight develops and uses state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques in his lab to ask fundamental questions about the evolution of the composition of biomolecules, genomes, and communities in different ecosystems, including the complex microbial ecosystems of the human body. His laboratory subscribes to an open-access scientific model, providing free, open-source software tools and making all protocols and data publicly available in order to increase general interest in and understanding of microbial ecology, and to further public involvement in scientific endeavors more generally. The Knight Lab has produced many of the software tools and laboratory techniques that enabled high-throughput microbiome science, including the QIIME pipeline and UniFrac. Knight is co-founder of the Earth Microbiome Project, the American Gut Project, and the company Biota, Inc., which uses DNA from microbes in the subsurface to guide oilfield decisions. His work has linked microbes to a range of health conditions including obesity and inflammatory bowel disease; has enhanced our understanding of microbes in environments ranging from the oceans to the tundra; and has made high-throughput sequencing techniques accessible to thousands of researchers around the world. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Rob Knight, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Computer Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23587
Views: 1138 nihvcast
Functional dynamics of the gut microbiome in health and disease
 
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Functional dynamics of the gut microbiome in health and disease Air date: Tuesday, October 27, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:59 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Dr. Fraser's current research interests are focused oncharacterization of the structure and function of the microbial communitiesthat are found in the human environment, as part of the NIH-funded HumanMicrobiome Project, including projects specifically focused on obesity,metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, the interactions between thehuman immune response and the gut microbiome, and the impact of probiotics onthe structure and function of the intestinal microbiome. About the annual Rolla E. Dyer lecture: The annual Rolla E. Dyer Lecture features aninternationally renowned researcher who has contributed substantially to themedical as well as the biological knowledge of infectious diseases. Establishedin 1950, the lecture series honors former NIH director Dr. Dyer, who was anoted authority on infectious diseases. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Claire Fraser, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology; Director, Institute for Genome Sciences; University of Maryland School of Medicine Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19272
Views: 3450 nihvcast
Ethan Shevach: Tregs - ready for the clinic?
 
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Studies over the past 20 years have clearly defined and extensively characterized Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) as major players in the control of most aspects of immune responses as well as playing a potential role in non-immunologic sites (fat, muscle). We are now at a point where studies have been/or will be initiated in the clinic using cellular biotherapy with Tregs, augmentation of Treg numbers/function with IL-2, and modulation of Treg function with small molecules and antibodies. Yet, many factors involved in Treg biology remain poorly studied. I will focus this talk on three key issues: 1) control of Treg homeostasis by TCR and co-stimulatory signals; 2) the role of transcription factors in modifying certain Treg functions; and 3) a critical review of suppressor mechanisms used by polyclonal and antigen-specific Tregs.
Gut reactions: host microbiome interactions in the intestine in health and disease
 
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Gut reactions: host microbiome interactions in the intestine in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, March 14, 2018, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:44 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The gastrointestinal tract is home to a large number and vast array of bacteria that play an important role in nutrition, immune-system development, and host defense. In inflammatory bowel disease there is a breakdown in this mutualistic relationship resulting in aberrant inflammatory responses to intestinal bacteria. Studies in model systems indicate that intestinal homeostasis is an active process involving a delicate balance between effector and immune suppressive pathways. For her presentation, Dr. Powrie will discuss bacterial pathways that promote intestinal homeostasis and host defense, and how these may be harnessed therapeutically. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2017-2018/ Author: Fiona Powrie, D. Phil., Professor; Director, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23754
Views: 2804 nihvcast
Hidde Ploegh (Boston Children’s Hospital) 1: Immunology: The Basics of Antibody Diversity
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/antibody-diversity/ Dr. Ploegh describes how antibody diversity lets us resist the multitude of infectious agents we encounter every day. He also explains how camelid antibody fragments are changing medicine. Talk Overview: How does our immune system protect us against all of the infectious agents and foreign substances we encounter? Much of the answer lies in antibody diversity.  In his first talk, Dr. Hidde Ploegh explains how B cells shuffle their genetic material such that regions of the immunoglobulin protein are rearranged. This generates the antibody diversity needed to recognize an almost infinite number of antigens. Interactions of B cells with T helper cells results in the formation of structurally distinct classes of immunoglobulins, further increasing antibody diversity.  T killer cells are primed to attack infectious agents when immunoglobulins on their surface recognize antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Ploegh explains that by subverting the MHC pathway, viruses and cancer cells can evade the immune system. In part two, Ploegh describes how his lab takes advantage of the unique properties of antibodies from the Camelidae family (alpacas, llamas, camels, etc). In addition to traditional antibodies, these animals naturally make small, heavy-chain only antibodies (nanobodies). These molecules can be isolated, amplified in bacteria, and engineered for new applications. As well as using nanobodies to target viruses and inflammasomes, Ploegh explains how his lab uses labelled nanobodies for non-invasive, live imaging of cancer tumors in mice. These technologies have exciting implications in basic and biomedical studies. Speaker Biography: Dr. Hidde Ploegh is an immunologist at Boston Children’s Hospital. His love for immunology began when he was an undergraduate at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. As a student, he wrote a letter to renowned immunologist Jon van Rood but never heard back. However, as an undergraduate researcher, he had an opportunity to work with Dr. Jack Strominger at Harvard University for 6 months. The experience was so great that after earning a BS and Masters in Biology and Chemistry from the University of Groningen, he returned to Strominger’s lab for his graduate studies. Ironically, his thesis committee chair ended up being Jon van Rood. Ploegh ultimately received his PhD from Leiden University in the Netherlands. Following graduate school, Ploegh was highly sought after by several institutions. Fresh from his PhD, Ploegh was first offered a position as a junior group leader in immunology at the University of Cologne, Germany in 1980. Since then, he has worked at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School and most recently, the Whitehead Institute. His accolades, in addition to prestigious awards, include induction into the European Molecular Biology Organization (1986), the American Academy of Arts and Science (2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (2012). He has contributed to over 500 papers. Learn more about his lab and research here: http://www.childrenshospital.org/research-and-innovation/research/programs/program-in-cellular-and-molecular-medicine/faculty-and-research/hidde-ploegh/lab-highlights
Views: 4554 iBiology
Germs, genes, and host defense
 
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Germs, genes, and host defense Air date: Wednesday, November 16, 2016, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:59:34 Description: Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) is a large-scale project that aims to identify the consequences that genetic variation in human DNA and the complex colonization with microbial communities (microbiome) have on the physiological processes in the human body, with a special focus on the immune system in health and human diseases. HFGP includes different deeply phenotyped cohorts with multi-omics information such as transcriptional profiling, gut microbiota composition and extensive immune phenotyping. For her lecture, Dr. Wijmenga will describe the potential of studying variation in the general population and the opportunities for translational research. She will also show how to make use of the LifeLines-deep cohort to establish what constitutes a "normal" gut microbiome and to show how microbiota composition correlates with a range of factors including diet, use of medication, and genetic factors. Her laboratory uses the 500 functional genomics (500FG) cohort to further characterize the interaction between the genetic background of the host, the gut microbiome composition, and the immune response against important human pathogens. The information from both LifeLines-deep and 500FG is subsequently used to identify genes that underlie the genetic susceptibility to systemic candida infections. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Cisca Wijmenga, Ph.D., Professor of Human Genetics, Head of the Genetics Department, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?20009
Views: 563 nihvcast
Sheng-Yang He (Michigan State U. and HHMI) 1: Introduction to Plant-Pathogen Interactions
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/plant-biology/plant-pathogen-interactions Dr. Sheng-Yang He explores plant-pathogen interactions and provides an overview of a plant's basic immunological responses. Talk Overview: What mechanisms do plants have to fight pathogens? In this seminar, Dr. Sheng-Yang He explores plant-pathogen interactions and provides an overview of a plant's basic immunological responses. As He explains, plants have "resistant" genes, which trigger the immune response after pathogenic infections (effector-triggered immunity). Also, plants immune system can be activated by the recognition of general patterns in pathogens (pattern-triggered immunity). Understanding these interactions could aid in the prevention of disease in plants, which would be beneficial to the agricultural industry and global food security. In his second lecture, He provides evidence on the effect of environmental factors (e.g. humidity) in the development of disease in plants. In order to understand disease susceptibility, He's laboratory studies the interaction that Arabidopsis has with the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae. He's laboratory showed that an increase in temperature and humidity increase bacterial disease severity. By genetically creating a plant that is altered in its immune system and water homeostasis, they were able to define the minimal factors that bacteria need to infect the plant. Speaker Biography: Dr. Sheng-Yang He is a University Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. He obtained his bachelor's degree (1982) and a master's degree in plant protection (1991) from Zhejiang Agricultural University in China. He pursued his graduate degree in plant pathology (1991) at Cornell University and continued his post-doctoral training at this institution. He joined the faculty of the University of Kentucky (1993), and in 1995 he moved to Michigan State University. His lab investigates plant-pathogen interactions. They study the molecular mechanisms of infection, and how climate and microbiota affect disease in plants. For his scientific contributions, He was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences in 2015. Learn more about He's research at his lab website: http://www.thehelab.org/
Views: 4516 iBiology
Hungry Microbiome: Gut Microbiome
 
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An animated overview of the human gut microbiome: the community of microbes in our insides. This video describes the various species of microbe that inhabit our digestive system and expounds their roles in digestion. Written and illustrated by Armando Hasudungan. The transcript can be found here: https://csironewsblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/gut-microbiome.doc
Views: 6153 CSIRO
Cells of the Immune System (Brittany Anderton)
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/cells-immune-system Brittany Anderton provides an overview of the major cells of the human immune system. The immune system is responsible for fighting infection and disease. It is comprised of many specialized cell types, all which work together to keep people healthy. In this short video, Dr. Brittany Anderton introduces the cells of the immune system. She compares and contrasts innate and adaptive immunity, and lays out the molecular interactions required to activate each type of response. Speaker Biography: Dr. Brittany Anderton obtained her PhD in biomedicine from UCSF in 2015. After that, she did a non-traditional postdoc at UC Davis where she studied the teaching and communication of biotechnology. Brittany has served as adjunct faculty at UC Davis and CSU Sacramento, where she taught introductory biology courses. At iBiology, she seeks to improve the teaching and communication of science using evidence from the learning and social sciences.
Views: 4322 iBiology
Curing Diabetes One Fish at a Time: The Long Road of Translational Research
 
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Air date: Wednesday, June 22, 2011, 3:00:00 PM Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Description: Our work is concerned with the formation, function and homeostasis of organs during vertebrate development. We are interested in understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie cellular differentiation, tissue morphogenesis and organ function during the formation of the cardiovascular system (the heart and the blood vessels) as well as the liver and pancreas. One approach consists of screening for mutations that affect these processes in zebrafish, a vertebrate model system that allows forward genetics as well as embryological studies. We also utilize the tools of chemical genetics to identify pathways that regulate these processes, taking advantage of the high-throughput methods available in zebrafish. This talk will focus on pancreas development and glucose homeostasis. Specifically, it will address our attempts to increase beta-cell mass via mobilization of stem cells and cell reprogramming. It will also cover the results of our ongoing screens for small molecules designed to 1) enhance beta-cell regeneration, 2) lower gluconeogenesis and 3) enhance beta-cell proliferation. Altogether, these studies aim to provide new therapeutic avenues to treat diabetes. The NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide. For more information, visit The NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Author: Dr. Didier Stainier, University of California in San Francisco Runtime: 01:00:29 Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?16729
Views: 2346 nihvcast
importance of normal flora
 
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importance of normal flora. http://review-channel.com This presentation contains images that were used under a Creative Commons License
Views: 33 Review Channel
Can My Gut Health Control My Emotions?
 
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America's #1 Probiotic http://www.lnk123.com/SHucp Trust Your Gut Blog https://thinkwithyourgutt.wordpress.com/ #goodguthealth #controlmyemotions Can My Gut Health Control My Emotions? How Can My Gut Health Affect My Anxiety and Depression? One of the key components in your gut is the microbiome, comprising a community of bacteria intended to help fight disease and promote overall health.. Your gut also is in constant conversation with your immune system via receptors throughout the digestive tract, triggering the release of hormones and other cells that can help to promote general immune functions The bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and gut microbiota, referred to as the gut-brain-axis, has been of significant interest in recent years. Increasing evidence has associated gut microbiota to both gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal diseases. Microbial imbalance and inflammation of the gut have been linked to causing several mental illnesses including anxiety and depression, which are prevalent in society today. What is the Microbiome? The microbiome is defined as all microorganisms in the human body and their respective genetic material. The microbiota is defined as all microorganisms in a particular location, such as the GI tract or skin Recen studies show that variations in the microbiome can have effects on various central nervous system disorders, including, anxiety, depressivion, schizophrenia, and autism. What are Cytokine? Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. High levels of cytokines contribute to arthritis, atherosclerosis, and asthma. Many studies suggest these immune system messengers are released under conditions of psychological stress and resulting inflammation in the brain may contribute to depression How the Microbiome Effects Brain Function? Inflammation of the GI tract places stress on the microbiome through the release of cytokines and neurotransmitters. Elevated blood levels of cytokines increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, enhancing the effects of rogue molecules from the permeable gut. The release of these molecules influences brain function, leading to anxiety, depression, and memory loss. Research has established a direct correlation between increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms of depression and anxiety Can Probiotics Cure My Anxiety And Depression? Probiotics are organisms (bacteria and yeasts) that are taken to improve health. Probiotics have been studied in the context of suppression of inflammatory cytokines. Some studies have found that human patients suffering from chronic inflammation responded positively to the ingestion of probiotics, as they decreased production of inflammatory cytokines. Probiotics have the ability to restore normal microbial balance, and have been utilized as supplements to other medications or as alternative treatments for anxiety and depression Healthy gut function has been linked to normal central nervous system (CNS) function. In Conclusion Is my gut health connected to anxiety and depression? The importance of a healthy microbiome, particularly the gut microbiota, for people suffering from anxiety and depression is crucial. As microbial imbalance and inflammation in the central nervous system have been linked as potential causes of mental illness. Now with all that said… If you found this video helpful and would like to learn more then please subscribe to the channel, click that like button, or leave a comment Also check out the links in the description to learn about America’s #1 Probiotic Supplement I hope you enjoyed this video and remember to always.... Trust Your Gut
Views: 12 Trust Your Gut
What is ENTERIC FERMENTATION? What does ENTERIC FERMENTATION mean? ENTERIC FERMENTATION meaning
 
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What is ENTERIC FERMENTATION? What does ENTERIC FERMENTATION mean? ENTERIC FERMENTATION meaning - ENTERIC FERMENTATION definition - ENTERIC FERMENTATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal. It is one of the factors in increased methane emissions. Ruminant animals are those that have a rumen. A rumen is a multichambered stomach found almost exclusively among some artiodactyl mammals, such cattle, deer, and camels, enabling them to eat cellulose-enhanced tough plants and grains that monogastric (i.e., "single-chambered stomached") animals, such as humans, dogs, and cats, cannot digest. Enteric fermentation occurs when methane (CH4) is produced in the rumen as microbial fermentation takes place. Over 200 species of microorganisms are present in the rumen, although only about 10% of these play an important role in digestion. Most of the CH4 byproduct is belched by the animal, however, a small percentage of CH4 is also produced in the large intestine and passed out as flatulence. Methane emissions are an important contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC reports that methane is more than twenty times as effective as CO2 at trapping heat in the atmosphere - though note that it is produced in substantially smaller amounts. In Australia ruminant animals account for over half of their green house gas contribution from methane. Australia has implemented a voluntary immunization program for cattle in order to help reduce flatulence-produced CH4. However, in Australia there are ruminant species of the kangaroos that are able to produce 80% less methane than cows. This is because the gut microbiota of Macropodids, rumen and others parts of their digestive system, is dominated by bacteria of the family Succinivibrionaceae. These bacteria are able to produce succinate as a final product of the lignocelluloses degradation, producing small amounts of methane as end product. Its special metabolic route allows to utilize others proton acceptors avoiding the formation of methane. Enteric fermentation is the second largest anthropogenic source of methane emissions in the United States from 2000 through 2009. In 2007, methane emissions from enteric fermentation were 2.5% of net greenhouse gases produced in the United States at 139 teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (Tg CO2) out of a total net emission of 5618 Tg CO2. For this reason, scientists believe that, with the aid of microbial engineering, the use of microbioma to modify natural or anthropogenic processes, we could change the microbiota composition of the rumen of strong methane producers, emulating the Macropodidae microbiota. Recent studies claim that this technique is possible to perform. In one of these studies scientists analyze the changes of human microbiota by different alimentary changes. In other study, researchers introduce a human microbiota in gnotobiotic mice in order to compare the different changes for developing new ways to manipulate the properties of the microbiota so as to prevent or treat various diseases.
Views: 1688 The Audiopedia
Host Gut Motility Promotes Competitive Exclusion within a Model Intestinal Microbiota
 
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Host Gut Motility Promotes Competitive Exclusion within a Model Intestinal Microbiota. Travis J Wiles et al (2016). PLOS Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002517 The gut microbiota is a complex consortium of microorganisms with the ability to influence important aspects of host health and development. Harnessing this “microbial organ” for biomedical applications requires clarifying the degree to which host and bacterial factors act alone or in combination to govern the stability of specific lineages. To address this issue, we combined bacteriological manipulation and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to monitor the dynamics of a defined two-species microbiota within a vertebrate gut. We observed that the interplay between each population and the gut environment produces distinct spatiotemporal patterns. As a consequence, one species dominates while the other experiences sudden drops in abundance that are well fit by a stochastic mathematical model. Modeling revealed that direct bacterial competition could only partially explain the observed phenomena, suggesting that a host factor is also important in shaping the community. We hypothesized the host determinant to be gut motility, and tested this mechanism by measuring colonization in hosts with enteric nervous system dysfunction due to a mutation in the ret locus, which in humans is associated with the intestinal motility disorder known as Hirschsprung disease. In mutant hosts we found reduced gut motility and, confirming our hypothesis, robust coexistence of both bacterial species. This study provides evidence that host-mediated spatial structuring and stochastic perturbation of communities can drive bacterial population dynamics within the gut, and it reveals a new facet of the intestinal host–microbe interface by demonstrating the capacity of the enteric nervous system to influence the microbiota. Ultimately, these findings suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting the intestinal ecosystem should consider the dynamic physical nature of the gut environment.
Views: 191 ScienceVio
Environmental Microbes in the Hygiene Hypothesis
 
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Harald Renz, University of Marburg Speech at the Herrenhausen Conference "Beyond the Intestinal Microbiome – From Signatures to Therapy", 10.10.2014 Overwhelming evidence indicates a strong impact of environmental microbes on the programming and the development of (early) immune responses. Based on clinical and epidemiological data, a certain exposure of environmental microbes – particularly of bacteria – seems to be an important pre-requisite for programming immune responses towards the tolerance default program. Such programming on the level of the adaptive immune responses is necessary, and required in order to prevent unwanted (chronic) inflammatory diseases and many autoimmune diseases. The grand challenge is to define the appropriate microbial environment on the cellular and molecular level in order to delineate the underlying mechanism of microbe-host interaction. Microbial diversity is one important finding the scientific community largely agrees upon. Conversely, reduced diversity is closely linked to several clinical phenotypes that precede the clinical onset of the disease, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. This concept implies the loss of evolutionary co-evolved microbial strains and is the result of changes in lifestyle condition. The great challenge is to delineate the molecular pathomechanism of gene-environment interactions and the impact of microbial communities on this complex and intimate relationship. Therefore, it is urgently needed to move this research field towards translational activities. Photo: Mirko Krenzel for Volkswagen Foundation ScienceUncut - Science Podcast by Volkswagen Foundation
Views: 355 VolkswagenStiftung
AHS16 - Megan Sanctuary: The Human Milk
 
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The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: babies and beyond - Megan Sanctuary ** Acknowledgements and References below** UC Davis Milk Group UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute - Kathleen Angkustsiri - Lauren Plumer - Mary Jae Leigh - Jonathan Polussa - Rhonda Wayne - Erika Bickel Mills Lab - David Mills - Chad Masarweh - Karen Kalenatra German Lab - Bruce German - Jennifer Smilowitz - Samara Freeman Ashwood Lab - Paul Ashwood - Houa Yang - Destanie Rose Slupsky Lab - Carolyn Slupsky - Shin Yu Chen - Jennie Sotelo Lebrilla Lab Foods for Health Institute UC Davis CTSC - Matt Yang - Dan Tancredi Ancestral Health Society Others - Jennifer Kain - My wonderful husband References LoCascio, R.G., et al., Glycoprofiling of bifidobacterial consumption of human milk oligosaccharides demonstrates strain specific, preferential consumption of small chain glycans secreted in early human lactation. J Agric Food Chem, 2007. 55(22): p. 8914-9. German, J.B., et al., Metabolomics and Milk: The Development of the Microbiota in Breastfed Infants, in Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease. 2015, Springer. p. 147-167. Sela, D.A., et al., The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008. 105(48): p. 18964-9. Zivkovic, A.M., et al., Establishment of a milk-oriented microbiota (MOM) in early life: how babies meet their MOMs. Funct Food Rev, 2013. 5(1): p. 3-12. Wickramasinghe, S., et al., Bifidobacteria grown on human milk oligosaccharides downregulate the expression of inflammation-related genes in Caco-2 cells. BMC Microbiol, 2015. 15: p. 172. Underwood, M.A., et al., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota. Pediatr Res, 2014. 76(4): p. 326-33. Allen-Blevins, C.R., D.A. Sela, and K. Hinde, Milk bioactives may manipulate microbes to mediate parent-offspring conflict. Evol Med Public Health, 2015. 2015(1): p. 106-21. Chichlowski, M., et al., Bifidobacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2012. 55(3): p. 321-7. Davis, J.C., et al., Identification of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed infants and their correlation with the gut microbial community. Mol Cell Proteomics, 2016. Garrido, D., D. Barile, and D.A. Mills, A molecular basis for bifidobacterial enrichment in the infant gastrointestinal tract. Adv Nutr, 2012. 3(3): p. 415s-21s. Goldsmith, F., et al., Lactation and Intestinal Microbiota: How Early Diet Shapes the Infant Gut. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2015. Smilowitz, J.T., et al., Breast milk oligosaccharides: structure-function relationships in the neonate. Annu Rev Nutr, 2014. 34: p. 143-69. De Leoz ML, Kalanetra K, Bokulich N, Strum J, Underwood M, German J, Mills D, Lebrilla C. Determination of human milk glycomics and gut microbial genomics in infant feces shows correlation between lactation and development of gut microbiota. (2014 unpublished)
Views: 1216 AncestryFoundation
What Is Butyric Acid 6 Butyric Acid Benefits You Need to Know About
 
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What Is Butyric Acid 6 Butyric Acid Benefits You Need to Know About. You may not have realized it, but chances are you’ve consumed something called butyric acid before, and believe it or not, your body produces it as well. It’s true — butyric acid, also known as butanoic acid or BTA, is a saturated short-chain fatty acid found in butter, ghee, raw milk, animal fats and plant oils. It’s also formed in and therefore found in our colons through the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates like dietary fiber. Butyric acid supports the health and healing of cells in the small and large intestine. It’s also the favored source of fuel for the cells lining the interior of the large intestine or colon. (1) The BTA content in ghee is one of the main components that provides all those wonderful ghee benefits. Consuming butyric acid in foods like ghee or in supplement form has been shown to aid digestion, calm inflammation and improve overall gastrointestinal health. People who suffer from irritable bowl syndrome and Crohn’s disease have been shown to benefit from butyric acid, and studies show promise when it comes to diabetes and insulin resistance too. BTA is also known as a potential anticancer fatty acid, especially when it comes to colon cancer. (2) I’m excited to tell you more about this extremely interesting fatty acid and how it can improve your overall health — and how it already is without you even knowing it! 6 Butyric Acid Health Benefits:. 1. Weight Loss. Butyric has gained popularity for its ability to possibly help people shed unwanted pounds. Scientific evidence has shown that people who are obese (as well as people who have type II diabetes) have a different composition of gut bacteria. Short chain fatty acids are believed to play a positive role along with probiotics in preventing metabolic syndrome, which almost always includes abdominal obesity. (3) Short chain fatty acids like butyric acid help regulate the balance between fatty acid synthesis and the breakdown of fats. In a 2007 animal study, after five weeks of treatment with BTA, obese mice lost 10.2 percent of their original body weight, and body fat was reduced by 10 percent. Butyric acid was also shown to improve insulin sensitivity, which helps guard against weight gain. (4) Most of the evidence for linking BTA supplementation specifically to weight loss is based on animal research so far, but it does show positive effects in treating obesity naturally. 2. Potential Colorectal Cancer Treatment. Multiple studies have shown butyric acid’s potential ability to fight cancer, especially cancer in the colon. It’s actually shown an ability to “modify nuclear architecture” and induce the death of colon cancer cells. This is likely a huge reason why increased fiber intake has been linked with less colon cancer since higher fiber intake can typically equate to more butyric acid present in the colon. (5) According to 2011 research published in the International Journal of Cancer, “the role of short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, in colon cancer therapy has been extensively studied, and its tumor suppressive functions are believed to be due to their intracellular actions.” This laboratory study further shows that butyrate treatment led to an increase in the programmed cell death of colon cancer cells. (6) According to a 2014 scientific article, it looks like “a high-fiber diet protects against colorectal tumors in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner.” (7) What does that mean? It means that most likely getting plenty of fiber isn’t what fends off cancer on its own. It’s eating a diet rich in healthy fiber AND having enough good gut flora AND enough BTA present in the body that can provides cancer defense in the colon. 3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Relief. In general, butyric acid can have a very positive impact on gut health, which greatly affects the health of your entire body. Short chain fatty acids like butyric acid can help keep the gut ling healthy and sealed, which prevents leaky gut syndrome and all kinds of issues linked to a leaky gut like IBS symptoms. This is a type of digestive disorder that’s characterized by a group of common symptoms, including changes in bowel movements and abdominal pain. A scientific article published in the Gastroenterology Review looked at butyric acid’s potential as an IBS therapy based on numerous studies conducted to date. Researchers conclude that “butyrate supplementation seems to be a promising therapy for IBS.” (8) All Photos Licensed Under CC Source : www.pexels.com www.pixabay.com www.commons.wikimedia.org
Views: 7428 Beauty & Health Tips
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3)
 
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The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3) Air date: Friday, August 18, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 04:59:15 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23424
Views: 2140 nihvcast
Bacterial Colonization Factors ... Specificity & Stability of Gut Microbiota - Sarkis Mazmanian
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Genetic Factors that Influence Carbpenem Resistance in Bacteria
 
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Speaker: Ryan Johnson, Ph.D. June 15, 2017 - Three-Minute Talks. Part of the 2017 plain language competition at NIH.
Thinking Out Loud: Sociality and Identity in a Bacterial World
 
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With Karine A. Gibbs, Associate Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University. More info: https://www.brown.edu/campus-life/events/thinking-out-loud/gibbs Thinking out Loud Series, Academic Year 2015-2016 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Brown University
Views: 346 Brown University
Regulating T Helper 17 Immunity - Wendy Huang, UCSD
 
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Regulating T Helper 17 Immunity: From Serum Amyloid to RNA Helicase and its Associated Long Non-coding RNAs Speaker: Wendy Huang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, UC San Diego
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2)
 
07:32:24
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2) Air date: Thursday, August 17, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 07:32:24 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23423
Views: 1950 nihvcast
Appetite for Life 2012, Dr. Melanie Spencer Ph.D. - "Gut Microbes: a Trillion Tiny Friends for Life"
 
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Dr. Melanie Spencer Ph.D. takes a look at Gut Microbes at the 2012 Appetite for Life seminar series hosted by the UNC Nutrition Research Institute. For slides and more information, visit http://www.uncnri.org and http://www.uncnri.org/appetite.asp.
Views: 696 UNC NRI
How Many Species Of Staphylococcus Are There?
 
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When stained, it will be seen in small clusters (staphylo cluster). Mega base pairs long with approximately 2,600 open reading frames, comprising 84. There are only a few species of staphylococcus that positive for the coagulase test (see table below), and s. Wikipedia wiki staphylococcus "imx0m" url? Q webcache. Epidermidis, which is considered to be a universal colonizer and part of pan microbiota. The aerobic catalase positive gram cocci present many taxonomic problems which must be resolved before a stable system of nomenclature can 12 nov 2014 they are opportunistic pathogens lack the virulence factors associated with sthere more than 30 species cons. Several manual and automated methods based on phenotypic characteristics have been developed for the identification of staphylococci (12, 24). Aureus is the most common. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelfstaphylococcus bookshelf. The term staphylococcus, generally used for all the species, refers to cells'. The boundaries of the species, whereby m sort them, are made by men. The characterization of the subdivisions is presented in a quantitative way. Distribution of staphylococcus species among human clinical identification a variety by matrix microbewiki. The coagulase negative staphylococci (cns) are now known to comprise over 30 other species. Among these there are some salient peculiarities. Biochemical characteristics of staphylococcus species human not all aureus strains are equally pathogenic distribution coagulase positive staphylococci in humans and a new silver. In fact, these different species can swap genes distribution in healthy hosts. Not only salt resistant, staphylococcus is always facultatively anaerobic. Human isolates 17 jul 2009 one of the important open questions in staphylococcal biology is whether molecular determinants for infection and colonization are shared or separate. Staphylococci colonizers and pathogens of human skin medscape. Staphylococcus list of prokaryotic names with standing in. The cns are common commensals of skin, although some species can cause infections s. Differences were observed between strains within a species from the same source and different sources. Identification of staphylococcus species, micrococcus species and an overview 22a identification biology libretexts. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelf staphylococcus wikipedia en. The taxonomy of these coagulase negative staphylococci (cons) fall into clusters based on 16s rrna sequences18saprophyticus are the there at least 30 other species staphylococci, all which lack this enzyme. Unfortunately, these systems have their limitations, mostly due to phenotypic differences between strains from the same species (6, 10, 19, 21). Biochemically, a principle difference between the two 21 apr 2016 run coagulase test there is linked exercise for this. Larlettae, of arlette; Named for arlette van de kerckhove, who has studied this and related species many years. Differe
Views: 18 new sparky
Putting Together the Optimal Functional Medicine Program - Podcast #116
 
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Putting together the optimal functional medicine program - Podcast #116 Get Show Updates Here: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/newsletter You-tube Podcast Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=justinhealth Show Transcription: See https://justinhealth.com/putting-together-the-optimal-functional-medicine-program-podcast-116 Dr. Justin Marchegiani and Evan Brand discuss effective functional medicine programs and how they create and follow protocols. This interview goes in-depth about the world of functional medicine practice. Find out why you shouldn't wait for something to happen before doing anything about it health-wise. Discover the differences between Body System One and Two and how optimal health can be attained. Learn about the various tests you can take and the right tools that are available to further achieve better and more effective results with functional medicine programs. In this episode, topics include: 01:26 Get help as early as possible 07:00 Body System One 10:19 Diet and lifestyle 17:16 Body System Two 38:22 Tests Subscribe on I-Tunes: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/itunes Review us at: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/itunes Visit us at: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com Have a question: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/question -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "GI Issues — Malabsorption, Infection & Inflammation in the Eye and Joint | Dr. J Live Q & A" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGf7F1Xi6po -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 642 Just In Health
Microscopic Video of Dead Bees
 
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In this video, you can see bees at high zoom. Some part of the video is so close that you can see a little hair of the bee. You can see eyes, sting and legs at close. At the end of the video is the highest zoom so check that out.
Views: 42 Croatia Bee Hives
Dr. Michele LeRoux (MIT): Pseudomonas aeruginosa survives with a gut reaction using their T6SS
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/pseudomonas-aeruginosa/ When we think about bacteria, we don’t really think about the sufferings and struggles they go through when they fight to keep their homes. Dr. Michele LeRoux explains how bacteria interact with one another as they compete for environmental resources. She focuses on the Type Six Secretion System (T6SS), a protein complex in the membrane of some strains of bacteria that is used to fight and outcompete other bacteria. Studying this system in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, she discovered that when these bacteria encounter other bacteria with T6SS, they are able to increase the amount of activated T6SS in their membranes. She noticed that Pseudomonas Aeruginosa could sense the death of sibling bacteria, which would activate their defense system. This novel immune response mechanism in bacteria provides insight on the bacterial responses to harmful cues. Speaker Biography: Dr. Michelle LeRoux completed her Bachelor's degree in Molecular Biology at Colgate University, NY. She joined the Molecular and Cellular Biology doctorate program at University of Washington, where she worked with Dr. Joseph Mougous and studied bacterial social behavior and interspecies warfare. She joined Dr. Michael Laub’s lab at MIT as a postdoctoral associate and continues studying the molecular mechanisms of bacterial life.
Views: 13776 iBiology
Genomics of Microbes and Microbiomes - Julie Segre (2016)
 
01:22:04
May 18, 2016 - Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2016 More: http://www.genome.gov/CTGA2016
Diet, Childhood Nutrition and the Microbiome - Kathryn Dewey
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Bacteria
 
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Introduction to bacteria More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=TDoGrbpJJ14
Views: 883546 Khan Academy
Microbiome Dynamics in Adults - Jacques Ravel
 
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July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Ralph Isberg (Tufts U / HHMI) Part 1: What Distinguishes a Pathogen from a Non-Pathogen?
 
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http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/ralph-isberg-part-1.html Talk Overview: Isberg begins by asking what distinguishes a pathogen from a non-pathogen? Our bodies are host to many microbes, most of which do not cause disease and many of which are beneficial. Occasionally, however, microbes do cause infection and disease. Pathogens such as Staphlococcus, Vibrio cholera and Mycobacterium tuberculosis differ from normal non-pathogenic microbes in that they cause damage to the host. This damage allows the pathogen to colonize novel sites, antagonizes the host immune response, and facilitates spread of the pathogen. Isberg explains that pathogens inflict damage on their hosts by secreting toxins that act on host cell membranes or translocate across the cell membrane and usurp normal cellular functions. He also reviews the ways that host immune phagocytes defend against pathogens. In his second talk, Isberg explains that pathogenic bacteria growing in tissues may form heterogeneous communities with bacteria expressing different protein profiles depending on their microenvironment. Using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model system, Isberg and his colleagues studied gene expression patterns within bacterial colonies in the spleen. They found that expression of toxins and other virulence factors is influenced by cues such as proximity to host phagocytic cells or the concentration of secreted molecules such as NO. These results showed that only a subset of cells within a community of pathogenic bacteria need to express virulence factors. Speaker Biography: Ralph Isberg is professor of molecular biology and microbiology at Tufts University School of Medicine and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Isberg’s lab strives to understand how pathogenic bacteria enter and grow within human cells, how they spread within the body and how they evade the immune system. The lab uses genetic and biochemical approaches to study these questions in the pathogenic bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila. Isberg received his AB in chemistry from Oberlin College and his PhD in microbiology and molecular genetics from Harvard University. He was a post-doctoral fellow at Stanford University with Stanley Falkow when he identified the first gene shown to be responsible for the entry of bacteria into host cells. Isberg’s contributions to microbiology have been recognized by election to the American Academy of Microbiology and the U.S National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 7534 iBiology
Gut Microbial Metabolism and Food Constituents - Johanna Lampe
 
28:12
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404