Search results “Small molecules from the human microbiota definition”
The Human Microbiome
Did you know a rich ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and viruses lives in your body? Watch this video to learn more about the role these microbes play in human health. In addition to the names referenced at the end of this video, Chanelle Adams also contributed to the development of the final script. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/scitoons/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/sci_toons?lang=en Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sci_toons/
Views: 8406 SciToons
Microbiome, Brain and Behavior - Ted Dinan
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Microbial Colonization and the Host: Reshaping the Landscape?
Traditionally, colonization of a host has been described in terms of a microbial community that does not affect the host, but recent research (such as the Human Microbiome Project) suggests that colonizing microbes are having an effect not only on the host, but on each other. Participants will discuss how small molecule interactions between the major constituents of the nasal microbiome are key drivers of the community composition in the nose, and how one intestinal bacterium's ability to produce a neurotransmitter has the potential to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. Guests: Katherine Lemon, The Forsyth Institute and Boston Children's Hospital Karina Pokusaeva, Baylor College of Medicine
Functional Analysis of Human Microbiome, Metagenomes, Metatranscriptomics... - Curtis Huttenhower
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food?
Sponsored by Tab for a Cause: http://www.tabforacause.org?r=3  MinuteEarth is also now on Patreon! Please support us at: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks to: - Subbable supporter Martin Dinov https://www.linkedin.com/in/martindinov - Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - salar tel - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @82abhilash ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Braidwood, R.J., et al. (1953) Symposium: Did Man Once Live by Beer Alone? American Anthropologist (55)4: 515-526 http://bit.ly/13CJ0q7 Curtis, V.,  de Barra, M., & Aunger R. (2011) Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366: 389-401. http://bit.ly/1AKLMUi FAO (2006) Good hygiene practices along the coffee chain. http://bit.ly/1Gv3BdB Fontana C., et al. (2010) Surface microbiota analysis of Taleggio, Gorgonzola, Casera, Scimudin and Formaggio di Fossa Italian cheeses. International Journal of Food Microbiology 138:205–211. http://bit.ly/1w2lTLs Hart, B.L. (1990) Behavioral adaptations to pathogens and parasites: five strategies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14: 273–294. http://bit.ly/1AiKYI9 Katz, Sandor. Interview: August 8, 2014. Kindstedt, P.S. (2013) Making Great Cheeses, part 2. American Society for Microbiology: Microbe Magazine 8(5): 361–367. http://bit.ly/13g60dK Mennella, J.A., et al. (2001) Prenatal and post-natal flavor learning by human infants. Pediatrics 107: e88. http://bit.ly/1Aupl5S ________________________ Image Credits 1. Rotten apple - Rafal Olkis / Shutterstock 2. Apple - Abhijit Tembhekar http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Apple.jpg 3. Cheese - Dieter Seeger http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Emmentaler_aoc_block.jpg 4. Chocolate - Flickr user jules http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3866423477/ 5. Bacteria - US Naval Research Laboratory http://www.nrl.navy.mil/PressReleases/2012/image1_8-12r_1019x671.jpg 6. Kid eating chocolate - Zurijeta / Shutterstock 7. Woman with coffee - beginwithaspin / Shutterstock 8. Bread is torn in half - Laboko / Shutterstock 9. Rotten Meat - arc15 user The_Camp_Ninja http://www.ar15.com/archive/topic.html?b=1&f=5&t=1234345 10. Salami - André Karwath http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salami_aka.jpg 11. Decomposed Meat - Youtube user agnozja https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OMTywqUPvg 12. Inside cacao - Irene Scott/AusAID http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10708819954/ 13. Cocoa Beans - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10687048615/in/photostream/ 14. Cocoa Beans 2 - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10687070725/in/photostream/ 15. Chocolate - Peter Pearson https://www.flickr.com/photos/peterpearson/2359015164 16. Gorgonzola - Formaggio Kitchen http://www.formaggiokitchen.com/shop/product_info.php?products_id=1153 27. Feet - Wikimedia user Kayau http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kayau's_feet.jpg 18. Fish Sauce - Wikimedia user Lord Mountbatten http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fish_sauce-Vientiane.JPG 19. Kiviaq - Inga Sørensen https://picasaweb.google.com/107346908723426363590/RejseTilGrNlandAug20093#5417783833033827874 20. Stinky Tofu - Wikimedia user Richy http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stinky_Tofu_Mala.jpg 21. Sauerkraut - Wikimedia user Qwerty Binary http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerkraut_2.jpg 22. Soy Sauce - Flickr user Creative Tools http://www.flickr.com/photos/creative_tools/4341203106/ 23. Prosciutto - Flickr user Sun Taro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Prosciutto_di_Parma_-_affettato2.jpg 24. Kefir Milk - Wikimedia user Quijote http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kefir_in_a_glass.JPG 25. Kimchi - Flickr user Nagyman http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagy/23219340/ 26. Kombucha Mature - Wikimedia user Mgarten http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kombucha_Mature.jpg 27. Koumiss bottle - Wikimedia user A.Savin http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kumys-bottle.jpg 28. Katsuobushi - Sakurai Midori http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Katsuobushi.jpg 29. Wine - André Karwath http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Wine_Glass.jpg 30. Yogurt - Wikimedia user Oxytousc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yogurtland_Yogurt_High_Res.jpg
Views: 2405271 MinuteEarth
Non-Antibiotic Drugs Affect our Gut Bacteria
The gut microbiome plays a vital role in metabolism, physiology, nutrition and immune response. Previous studies have shown that some non-antibiotic drugs can lead to changes in composition of the gut microbiome, but the extent of this is not understood. Scientists at EMBL have now screened the effects of 1,200 marketed drugs on the growth of 38 representative bacterial strains found in the human gut. This e-learning video showcases the story, methodology and findings from this breakthrough Nature publication, published on the 19th March 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25979 Find out more and take our quiz and interactive exercises by visiting our e-learning website https://www.embl.de/training/e-learning/drug_microbiome/index.html
Human Gut Microbiome
Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
Lora Hooper (UT Southwestern) 1: Mammalian gut microbiota: Mammals and their symbiotic gut microbes
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/ Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 5473 iBiology
Gut Microbial Metabolism and Food Constituents - Johanna Lampe
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Hungry Microbiome: Gut Microbiome
An animated overview of the human gut microbiome: the community of microbes in our insides. This video describes the various species of microbe that inhabit our digestive system and expounds their roles in digestion. Written and illustrated by Armando Hasudungan. The transcript can be found here: https://csironewsblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/gut-microbiome.doc
Views: 5452 CSIRO
Molecular Data & the Microbiome
Curtis Huttenhower is an Associate Professor of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and an Associate Member at the Broad Institute. In this video Dr. Curtis Huttenhower will present a lecture titled, “Molecular Data and the Microbiome.” Video Description High-throughput sequencing has become one of many technologies that can be integrated to enable culture-independent studies of microbial communities. These include both environmental microbes, such as those that influence agriculture or water quality, as well as the human microbiome and its roles in health and disease. The multi'omic combination of amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and other functional molecular data is helping to bridge "parts lists" of these microbial residents with their phenotypic and environmental effects. This raises two current computational challenges: how to provide the most precise bioinformatic solutions describing microbial community systems biology, and what new applications of these integrated data types can be developed to improve population health? Dr. Huttenhower will discuss computational profiling methods for the human microbiome, which provide strain-specific microbial identification and metabolic reconstruction. In combination with microbiome-appropriate statistical tools, these can thus associate microbial features with health outcomes and covariates in human populations to better understand immune and inflammatory disease. About the Speaker Dr. Curtis Huttenhower is an Associate Professor of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and an Associate Member at the Broad Institute. He was an analysis lead in the NIH Human Microbiome Project, the "HMP2," and currently leads the Human Microbiome Bioactives Resource. His lab focuses on computational methods for functional analysis of microbial communities, as well as microbiome epidemiology to link microbial community function to public health. View slides from this lecture: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1U36NyMinKAm1R2rwgRb0fJUFVHbeYS9J Visit our webpage to view archived videos covering various topics in data science: https://bigdatau.ini.usc.edu/data-science-seminars
Introduction to bacteria More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=TDoGrbpJJ14
Views: 789927 Khan Academy
How "Paleo" is Your Diet? - AMNH SciCafe
Evolutionary biologists argue that no study of human health or evolution is complete without considering the trillions of microbes that live in us or on us—our microbiome. In this SciCafe, join molecular anthropologist Christina Warinner as she explores how scientists are reconstructing the ancestral human microbiome to better understand the lives and health of our ancestors. This lecture took place at the Museum on April 6, 2016. To learn about upcoming SciCafe events, visit amnh.org/scicafe. To listen to the full lecture, visit http://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/podcasts/scicafe-how-paleo-is-your-diet The SciCafe Series is proudly sponsored by Judy and Josh Weston. This SciCafe event is presented in collaboration with The Leakey Foundation. SciCafe: How “Paleo” is Your Diet?, The Secret World Inside You, and related activities are generously supported by the Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This video and all media incorporated herein (including text, images, and audio) are the property of the American Museum of Natural History or its licensors, all rights reserved. The Museum has made this video available for your personal, educational use. You may not use this video, or any part of it, for commercial purposes, nor may you reproduce, distribute, publish, prepare derivative works from, or publicly display it without the prior written consent of the Museum. © American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2)
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2) Air date: Thursday, August 17, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 07:32:24 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23423
Views: 1441 nihvcast
Environmental Microbes in the Hygiene Hypothesis
Harald Renz, University of Marburg Speech at the Herrenhausen Conference "Beyond the Intestinal Microbiome – From Signatures to Therapy", 10.10.2014 Overwhelming evidence indicates a strong impact of environmental microbes on the programming and the development of (early) immune responses. Based on clinical and epidemiological data, a certain exposure of environmental microbes – particularly of bacteria – seems to be an important pre-requisite for programming immune responses towards the tolerance default program. Such programming on the level of the adaptive immune responses is necessary, and required in order to prevent unwanted (chronic) inflammatory diseases and many autoimmune diseases. The grand challenge is to define the appropriate microbial environment on the cellular and molecular level in order to delineate the underlying mechanism of microbe-host interaction. Microbial diversity is one important finding the scientific community largely agrees upon. Conversely, reduced diversity is closely linked to several clinical phenotypes that precede the clinical onset of the disease, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. This concept implies the loss of evolutionary co-evolved microbial strains and is the result of changes in lifestyle condition. The great challenge is to delineate the molecular pathomechanism of gene-environment interactions and the impact of microbial communities on this complex and intimate relationship. Therefore, it is urgently needed to move this research field towards translational activities. Photo: Mirko Krenzel for Volkswagen Foundation ScienceUncut - Science Podcast by Volkswagen Foundation
Views: 316 VolkswagenStiftung
The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease
The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, February 22, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:07:59 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The vertebrate intestinal tract is colonized by hundreds of species of bacteria that outnumber the total cells in the host, yet must be compartmentalized and tolerated to prevent invasive growth and harmful inflammatory responses. A key function of commensal microbes is to contribute to the adaptive immune repertoire and to diverse lymphocyte effector functions. T cell responses against non-invasive commensals contribute to shaping the repertoire of effector/memory and regulatory T cells. How T cells elicited by commensal bacteria can influence autoimmunity is a central question that remains unsolved. The Littman Lab studies the antigenic specificity of microbiota-induced T cells and the mechanisms by which their functions are acquired upon interaction with distinct commensal species. His lab finds that Th17 cells, which are central to mucosal barrier defense but also participate in autoimmune disease, are induced by specific constituents of the microbiota, and acquire effector function only after additional exposure to endogenous adjuvants, such as the serum amyloid A proteins. The lab's studies in mice are not only relevant for human autoimmune diseases, many of which have Th17 cell involvement, but may also provide insights into how commensal microbe-specific T cell responses could be harnessed for mucosal vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Dan R. Littman, M.D., Ph.D., Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology at New York University School of Medicine Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?22148
Views: 3533 nihvcast
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3)
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3) Air date: Friday, August 18, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 04:59:15 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23424
Views: 1559 nihvcast
Genomics of Microbes and Microbiomes - Julie Segre (2016)
May 18, 2016 - Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2016 More: http://www.genome.gov/CTGA2016
The surprisingly charming science of your gut | Giulia Enders
Ever wonder how we poop? Learn about the gut -- the system where digestion (and a whole lot more) happens -- as doctor and author Giulia Enders takes us inside the complex, fascinating science behind it, including its connection to mental health. It turns out, looking closer at something we might shy away from can leave us feeling more fearless and appreciative of ourselves. Check out more TED Talks: http://www.ted.com The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. Follow TED on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: https://www.youtube.com/TED
Views: 230223 TED
Germs, genes, and host defense
Germs, genes, and host defense Air date: Wednesday, November 16, 2016, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:59:34 Description: Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) is a large-scale project that aims to identify the consequences that genetic variation in human DNA and the complex colonization with microbial communities (microbiome) have on the physiological processes in the human body, with a special focus on the immune system in health and human diseases. HFGP includes different deeply phenotyped cohorts with multi-omics information such as transcriptional profiling, gut microbiota composition and extensive immune phenotyping. For her lecture, Dr. Wijmenga will describe the potential of studying variation in the general population and the opportunities for translational research. She will also show how to make use of the LifeLines-deep cohort to establish what constitutes a "normal" gut microbiome and to show how microbiota composition correlates with a range of factors including diet, use of medication, and genetic factors. Her laboratory uses the 500 functional genomics (500FG) cohort to further characterize the interaction between the genetic background of the host, the gut microbiome composition, and the immune response against important human pathogens. The information from both LifeLines-deep and 500FG is subsequently used to identify genes that underlie the genetic susceptibility to systemic candida infections. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Cisca Wijmenga, Ph.D., Professor of Human Genetics, Head of the Genetics Department, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?20009
Views: 501 nihvcast
Dr. Michele LeRoux (MIT): Pseudomonas aeruginosa survives with a gut reaction using their T6SS
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/pseudomonas-aeruginosa/ When we think about bacteria, we don’t really think about the sufferings and struggles they go through when they fight to keep their homes. Dr. Michele LeRoux explains how bacteria interact with one another as they compete for environmental resources. She focuses on the Type Six Secretion System (T6SS), a protein complex in the membrane of some strains of bacteria that is used to fight and outcompete other bacteria. Studying this system in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, she discovered that when these bacteria encounter other bacteria with T6SS, they are able to increase the amount of activated T6SS in their membranes. She noticed that Pseudomonas Aeruginosa could sense the death of sibling bacteria, which would activate their defense system. This novel immune response mechanism in bacteria provides insight on the bacterial responses to harmful cues. Speaker Biography: Dr. Michelle LeRoux completed her Bachelor's degree in Molecular Biology at Colgate University, NY. She joined the Molecular and Cellular Biology doctorate program at University of Washington, where she worked with Dr. Joseph Mougous and studied bacterial social behavior and interspecies warfare. She joined Dr. Michael Laub’s lab at MIT as a postdoctoral associate and continues studying the molecular mechanisms of bacterial life.
Views: 9519 iBiology
Hungry Microbiome: Starch
An animated overview of the carbohydrate 'starch'. This video follows starch and resistant starch as they are ingested, broken up, and assimilated into the body. Written and illustrated by Armando Hasudungan. The transcript can be found here: https://csironewsblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/csiro_the-hungry-microbiome-project_starch-sd.doc
Views: 4573 CSIRO
Dr. Paul Mason - 'From fibre to the microbiome: low carb gut health'
Dr Paul Mason obtained his medical degree with honours from the University of Sydney, and also holds degrees in Physiotherapy and Occupational Health. He is a Specialist Sports Medicine and Exercise Physician. Dr Mason developed an interest in low carbohydrate diets in 2011. Since then he has spent hundreds of hours reading and analysing the scientific literature. For the last two years, Dr. Mason has been applying this knowledge in treating metabolic and arthritis patients who have achieved dramatic and sustained weight loss and reductions in joint pain.
Views: 23350 Low Carb Down Under
ELSI Issues and Microbiome Studies - Rosamond Rhodes
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Microbiome Colonization and Assembly - Ruth Ley
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Establishing causality in microbiome studies
Establishing causality in microbiome studies Views: Total views: 218, (142 Live, 76 On-demand) Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:03:06 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Rob Knight develops and uses state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques in his lab to ask fundamental questions about the evolution of the composition of biomolecules, genomes, and communities in different ecosystems, including the complex microbial ecosystems of the human body. His laboratory subscribes to an open-access scientific model, providing free, open-source software tools and making all protocols and data publicly available in order to increase general interest in and understanding of microbial ecology, and to further public involvement in scientific endeavors more generally. The Knight Lab has produced many of the software tools and laboratory techniques that enabled high-throughput microbiome science, including the QIIME pipeline and UniFrac. Knight is co-founder of the Earth Microbiome Project, the American Gut Project, and the company Biota, Inc., which uses DNA from microbes in the subsurface to guide oilfield decisions. His work has linked microbes to a range of health conditions including obesity and inflammatory bowel disease; has enhanced our understanding of microbes in environments ranging from the oceans to the tundra; and has made high-throughput sequencing techniques accessible to thousands of researchers around the world. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Rob Knight, Ph.D., Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Computer Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23587
Views: 658 nihvcast
AHS16 - Megan Sanctuary: The Human Milk
The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: babies and beyond - Megan Sanctuary ** Acknowledgements and References below** UC Davis Milk Group UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute - Kathleen Angkustsiri - Lauren Plumer - Mary Jae Leigh - Jonathan Polussa - Rhonda Wayne - Erika Bickel Mills Lab - David Mills - Chad Masarweh - Karen Kalenatra German Lab - Bruce German - Jennifer Smilowitz - Samara Freeman Ashwood Lab - Paul Ashwood - Houa Yang - Destanie Rose Slupsky Lab - Carolyn Slupsky - Shin Yu Chen - Jennie Sotelo Lebrilla Lab Foods for Health Institute UC Davis CTSC - Matt Yang - Dan Tancredi Ancestral Health Society Others - Jennifer Kain - My wonderful husband References LoCascio, R.G., et al., Glycoprofiling of bifidobacterial consumption of human milk oligosaccharides demonstrates strain specific, preferential consumption of small chain glycans secreted in early human lactation. J Agric Food Chem, 2007. 55(22): p. 8914-9. German, J.B., et al., Metabolomics and Milk: The Development of the Microbiota in Breastfed Infants, in Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease. 2015, Springer. p. 147-167. Sela, D.A., et al., The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008. 105(48): p. 18964-9. Zivkovic, A.M., et al., Establishment of a milk-oriented microbiota (MOM) in early life: how babies meet their MOMs. Funct Food Rev, 2013. 5(1): p. 3-12. Wickramasinghe, S., et al., Bifidobacteria grown on human milk oligosaccharides downregulate the expression of inflammation-related genes in Caco-2 cells. BMC Microbiol, 2015. 15: p. 172. Underwood, M.A., et al., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis: alterations in inflammation, innate immune response, and the microbiota. Pediatr Res, 2014. 76(4): p. 326-33. Allen-Blevins, C.R., D.A. Sela, and K. Hinde, Milk bioactives may manipulate microbes to mediate parent-offspring conflict. Evol Med Public Health, 2015. 2015(1): p. 106-21. Chichlowski, M., et al., Bifidobacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2012. 55(3): p. 321-7. Davis, J.C., et al., Identification of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed infants and their correlation with the gut microbial community. Mol Cell Proteomics, 2016. Garrido, D., D. Barile, and D.A. Mills, A molecular basis for bifidobacterial enrichment in the infant gastrointestinal tract. Adv Nutr, 2012. 3(3): p. 415s-21s. Goldsmith, F., et al., Lactation and Intestinal Microbiota: How Early Diet Shapes the Infant Gut. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2015. Smilowitz, J.T., et al., Breast milk oligosaccharides: structure-function relationships in the neonate. Annu Rev Nutr, 2014. 34: p. 143-69. De Leoz ML, Kalanetra K, Bokulich N, Strum J, Underwood M, German J, Mills D, Lebrilla C. Determination of human milk glycomics and gut microbial genomics in infant feces shows correlation between lactation and development of gut microbiota. (2014 unpublished)
Views: 1052 AncestryFoundation
Gut reactions: host microbiome interactions in the intestine in health and disease
Gut reactions: host microbiome interactions in the intestine in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, March 14, 2018, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:44 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The gastrointestinal tract is home to a large number and vast array of bacteria that play an important role in nutrition, immune-system development, and host defense. In inflammatory bowel disease there is a breakdown in this mutualistic relationship resulting in aberrant inflammatory responses to intestinal bacteria. Studies in model systems indicate that intestinal homeostasis is an active process involving a delicate balance between effector and immune suppressive pathways. For her presentation, Dr. Powrie will discuss bacterial pathways that promote intestinal homeostasis and host defense, and how these may be harnessed therapeutically. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2017-2018/ Author: Fiona Powrie, D. Phil., Professor; Director, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23754
Views: 241 nihvcast
Microbiome and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers - Stanley Hazen
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Diet, Childhood Nutrition and the Microbiome - Kathryn Dewey
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
State of the Science and Obstacles: Fecal Microbiota and Transplantation - Alexander Khoruts
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Microbiome Dynamics in Adults - Jacques Ravel
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Ethan Shevach: Tregs - ready for the clinic?
Studies over the past 20 years have clearly defined and extensively characterized Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) as major players in the control of most aspects of immune responses as well as playing a potential role in non-immunologic sites (fat, muscle). We are now at a point where studies have been/or will be initiated in the clinic using cellular biotherapy with Tregs, augmentation of Treg numbers/function with IL-2, and modulation of Treg function with small molecules and antibodies. Yet, many factors involved in Treg biology remain poorly studied. I will focus this talk on three key issues: 1) control of Treg homeostasis by TCR and co-stimulatory signals; 2) the role of transcription factors in modifying certain Treg functions; and 3) a critical review of suppressor mechanisms used by polyclonal and antigen-specific Tregs.
Demystifying Medicine 2014 - The Intestinal Microbiome
Demystifying Medicine 2014 - The Intestinal Microbiome: Role in Nutrition, Metabolism, and Inflamation Air date: Tuesday, March 04, 2014, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:45:35 Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Yasmin Belkaid, PhD (NIAID) Warren Strober, MD (NIAID) Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18322
Views: 4420 nihvcast
What is ENTERIC FERMENTATION? What does ENTERIC FERMENTATION mean? ENTERIC FERMENTATION meaning - ENTERIC FERMENTATION definition - ENTERIC FERMENTATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal. It is one of the factors in increased methane emissions. Ruminant animals are those that have a rumen. A rumen is a multichambered stomach found almost exclusively among some artiodactyl mammals, such cattle, deer, and camels, enabling them to eat cellulose-enhanced tough plants and grains that monogastric (i.e., "single-chambered stomached") animals, such as humans, dogs, and cats, cannot digest. Enteric fermentation occurs when methane (CH4) is produced in the rumen as microbial fermentation takes place. Over 200 species of microorganisms are present in the rumen, although only about 10% of these play an important role in digestion. Most of the CH4 byproduct is belched by the animal, however, a small percentage of CH4 is also produced in the large intestine and passed out as flatulence. Methane emissions are an important contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC reports that methane is more than twenty times as effective as CO2 at trapping heat in the atmosphere - though note that it is produced in substantially smaller amounts. In Australia ruminant animals account for over half of their green house gas contribution from methane. Australia has implemented a voluntary immunization program for cattle in order to help reduce flatulence-produced CH4. However, in Australia there are ruminant species of the kangaroos that are able to produce 80% less methane than cows. This is because the gut microbiota of Macropodids, rumen and others parts of their digestive system, is dominated by bacteria of the family Succinivibrionaceae. These bacteria are able to produce succinate as a final product of the lignocelluloses degradation, producing small amounts of methane as end product. Its special metabolic route allows to utilize others proton acceptors avoiding the formation of methane. Enteric fermentation is the second largest anthropogenic source of methane emissions in the United States from 2000 through 2009. In 2007, methane emissions from enteric fermentation were 2.5% of net greenhouse gases produced in the United States at 139 teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (Tg CO2) out of a total net emission of 5618 Tg CO2. For this reason, scientists believe that, with the aid of microbial engineering, the use of microbioma to modify natural or anthropogenic processes, we could change the microbiota composition of the rumen of strong methane producers, emulating the Macropodidae microbiota. Recent studies claim that this technique is possible to perform. In one of these studies scientists analyze the changes of human microbiota by different alimentary changes. In other study, researchers introduce a human microbiota in gnotobiotic mice in order to compare the different changes for developing new ways to manipulate the properties of the microbiota so as to prevent or treat various diseases.
Views: 877 The Audiopedia
A Milk-Oriented Microbiota (MOM) in Infants - How Babies find their MOMs - David Mills
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
DNA transcription and translation [HD animation]
DNA transcription and translation animation #Please → Like, comment, share and subscribe 👍🏻❤️
Views: 702164 McGraw-Hill Animations
Q/A: Correlation Vs. Causation - Examining TMAO
Donations to support this channel can be made here: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=D3HRHLCAT4XJJ Follow me on IG: christopher_morales_121093 Back in 2011, researchers published a paper proposing that a naturally occurring compound called TMAO (trimethylamine N oxide), most commonly found in red meat, increases the risk of developing heart disease (1). If we use our deductive reasoning skills this means that if red meat consumption elevates TMAO, and elevated TMAO increase the risk of heart disease, we'd see higher rates of heart disease in people that eat more red meat. However the epidemiological evidence examining this question is mixed. For example there was a large meta-analysis study published in 2010 that covered over 1.2 million participants found the contrary. That is the consumption of non-processed red meat was not associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stoke, or diabetes. (2) On the other hand, a smaller prospective study including about 121,000 participants from the Nurses Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study did find a positive association between red meat consumption (both fresh and processed) and total mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and even cancer. (3) So for example, let's say a study shows that eating bacon increases your risk of heart disease. If we apply the patterns I described above, these people will tend to eat more processed foods, refined sugars with less fruits and vegetables. They also may drink and smoke more while exercising less. Some studies most mostly those looking at two variables with a large population set generally don't take these confounding factors into consideration. An elevated level of TMAO could reflect perhaps an over consumption of dietary trimethylamine (be it from red meat, or sea food); it could also reflect an impaired excretion of TMAO into the urine, or even an enhanced conversion of TMAO in the liver to undergo it's metabolic breakdown. These's an enzyme called Fmo3 which carries out it's conversion, and theres a number of genetic variants affecting the activity of this enzyme which can found only in certain ethnic groups....the enzyme may also be impaired by numerous types of drugs, or can be overexpressed my excess iron or salt. So as you can see, it's largely oversimplistic to suggest that eating red meat causes elevated TMAO. (4) If I were to propose a study, I'd take a population and split them in half: one group with TMAU (trimethlaminuria) which is a rare metabolic disorder that causes a defect in Fmo3; and the other group being "normal" metabolizers of TMAO. If those with TMAU are in general far healthier by numerous health factors (cancer/heart disease rates, cholesterol, CAD, etc.), then we should create a way to help for TMA oxidation to decrease in normal livers. References: (1) Wang, Z., Klipfell, E., Bennett, B. J., Koeth, R., Levison, B. S., DuGar, B., … Hazen, S. L. (2011). Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature, 472(7341), 57–63. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature0 9922 (2) Micha, R., Wallace, S. K., & Mozaffarian, D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: A systematic review and meta analysis. Circulation, 121(21), 2271–2283. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977 (3) Pan, A., Sun, Q., Bernstein, A. M., Schulze, M. B., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., … Hu, F. B. (2012). Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results from Two Prospective Cohort Studies. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(7), 555–563. http://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2287 (4)Motika, M.S., Zhang, J., & Cashman, J.R. (2007). Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 and human disease. Expert Opinion in Drug Metabolism Toxicology, 2(6):831-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028028 Pictures: TMAO Chemical Structure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimethylamine_N-oxide#/media/File:Trimethylaminoxid.svg Artery http://media.renalandurologynews.com/images/2015/06/22/dysfunctionalhdlcvdriskckd_789184.jpg?format=jpg&zoom=1&quality=70&anchor=middlecenter&width=320&mode=pad Fish, Steak, Pork, Eggs http://assets.labroots.com/_public/_files/system/content-articles/images/profile/9302_855x575.jpg
Views: 380 Christopher Morales
Nicole King (UC Berkeley, HHMI) 2: Choanoflagellate colonies, bacterial signals and animal origins
https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/choanoflagellates/#part-2 Talk Overview: Animals, plants, green algae, fungi and slime molds are all forms of multicellular life, yet each evolved multicellularity independently. How did animals evolve from their single-celled ancestors? King addresses this question using a group of fascinating organisms called choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are the closest living relatives to animals; they are single-cell, flagellated, bacteria eating organisms found between fungi and animals on the phylogenetic tree of life. By sequencing the genomes of many choanoflagellate species, King and her colleagues have discovered that some genes required for multicellularity in animals, such as adhesion, signaling, and extracellular matrix genes, are found in choanoflagellates. This suggests that these genes may have evolved before the transition to multicellularity in animals. The choanoflagellate S. rosetta can exist as a unicellular organism or it can switch to form multicellular colonies. In fact, its life cycle can be quite complex; it can form long chain colonies, spherical colonies called rosettes, or exist in different unicellular forms. In part 2 of her talk, King explains how she chose to use S. rosetta as a simple model for animal origins. After overcoming the technical difficulty of getting S. rosetta to form rosettes in the lab, she investigated how rosettes develop and how the cells within a rosette adhere to each other. She also asked the intriguing question “What regulates rosette development?”. It turns out that rosette formation is regulated by lipids produced by environmental bacteria that S. rosetta eat. This result adds to the growing interest in how bacteria may be influencing the behavior of diverse animals including humans. Speaker Biography: While fossils sparked Nicole King’s childhood interest in evolution, she realized that the fossil record doesn’t explain fully how animals first evolved from their single celled ancestors. To answer this question, King decided to study modern day choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are single celled organisms that can also develop in to multicellular assemblages. King first learned about choanoflagellates while she was a graduate student with Richard Losick at Harvard University. She moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to do a post-doctoral fellowship focusing on choanoflagellates. In 2003, King joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley. Currently, she is a Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at Berkeley and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. King’s innovative studies have been recognized with a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and a Pew Scholarship. King is also a Senior Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Views: 10457 iBiology
Host Gut Motility Promotes Competitive Exclusion within a Model Intestinal Microbiota
Host Gut Motility Promotes Competitive Exclusion within a Model Intestinal Microbiota. Travis J Wiles et al (2016). PLOS Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002517 The gut microbiota is a complex consortium of microorganisms with the ability to influence important aspects of host health and development. Harnessing this “microbial organ” for biomedical applications requires clarifying the degree to which host and bacterial factors act alone or in combination to govern the stability of specific lineages. To address this issue, we combined bacteriological manipulation and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to monitor the dynamics of a defined two-species microbiota within a vertebrate gut. We observed that the interplay between each population and the gut environment produces distinct spatiotemporal patterns. As a consequence, one species dominates while the other experiences sudden drops in abundance that are well fit by a stochastic mathematical model. Modeling revealed that direct bacterial competition could only partially explain the observed phenomena, suggesting that a host factor is also important in shaping the community. We hypothesized the host determinant to be gut motility, and tested this mechanism by measuring colonization in hosts with enteric nervous system dysfunction due to a mutation in the ret locus, which in humans is associated with the intestinal motility disorder known as Hirschsprung disease. In mutant hosts we found reduced gut motility and, confirming our hypothesis, robust coexistence of both bacterial species. This study provides evidence that host-mediated spatial structuring and stochastic perturbation of communities can drive bacterial population dynamics within the gut, and it reveals a new facet of the intestinal host–microbe interface by demonstrating the capacity of the enteric nervous system to influence the microbiota. Ultimately, these findings suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting the intestinal ecosystem should consider the dynamic physical nature of the gut environment.
Views: 168 ScienceVio
Demystifying Medicine 2016: The Intestinal Microbiome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Demystifying Medicine 2016: The Intestinal Microbiome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Air date: Tuesday, February 9, 2016, 4:00:00 PM Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:32:16 Description: Demystifying Medicine is an annual course from January to May designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. The course includes presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research, primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, fellows, and staff. All are invited. For more information go to https://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov/ Author: Yasmine Belkaid, PhD, NIAID, NIH and Warren Strober, MD, NIAID, NIH Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19474
Views: 2836 nihvcast
Dr. Charles Raison on Depression, the Immune-Brain Interface & Whole-Body Hyperthermia
Charles Raison, M.D. is a professor at the School of Human Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Founding Director of the Center for Compassion Studies in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Arizona. Dr. Raison’s research focuses on inflammation and the development of depression in response to illness and stress. He also examines the physical and behavioral effects of compassion training on the brain, inflammatory processes, and behavior as well as the effect of heat stress as a potentially therapeutic intervention major depressive disorder. ▶︎ Get the show notes! https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/charles-raison ▶︎ Raison Research Lab http://www.raisonresearchgroup.com/ ▶︎ The New Mind-Body Science of Depression (book) http://amzn.to/2pi53iL --- Links related to FoundMyFitness: ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://youtube.com/user/FoundMyFitness?sub_confirmation=1 ▶︎ Join my weekly email newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=lifestyle-heuristic ▶︎ FoundMyFitness Genetics: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/genetics ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/crowdsponsor ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 53013 FoundMyFitness
Curing Diabetes One Fish at a Time: The Long Road of Translational Research
Air date: Wednesday, June 22, 2011, 3:00:00 PM Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Description: Our work is concerned with the formation, function and homeostasis of organs during vertebrate development. We are interested in understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie cellular differentiation, tissue morphogenesis and organ function during the formation of the cardiovascular system (the heart and the blood vessels) as well as the liver and pancreas. One approach consists of screening for mutations that affect these processes in zebrafish, a vertebrate model system that allows forward genetics as well as embryological studies. We also utilize the tools of chemical genetics to identify pathways that regulate these processes, taking advantage of the high-throughput methods available in zebrafish. This talk will focus on pancreas development and glucose homeostasis. Specifically, it will address our attempts to increase beta-cell mass via mobilization of stem cells and cell reprogramming. It will also cover the results of our ongoing screens for small molecules designed to 1) enhance beta-cell regeneration, 2) lower gluconeogenesis and 3) enhance beta-cell proliferation. Altogether, these studies aim to provide new therapeutic avenues to treat diabetes. The NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide. For more information, visit The NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Author: Dr. Didier Stainier, University of California in San Francisco Runtime: 01:00:29 Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?16729
Views: 2314 nihvcast
Microbiome/Metagenome Analysis Workshop: QIIME
Analysis of 16S data using QIIME presented by Kellyanne Duncan. For more info: https://www.brown.edu/academics/computational-molecular-biology/cbc-microbiomemetagenome-analysis-workshop Tuesday, November 7th 2017 Brown University
Views: 1792 Brown University
How Many Species Of Staphylococcus Are There?
When stained, it will be seen in small clusters (staphylo cluster). Mega base pairs long with approximately 2,600 open reading frames, comprising 84. There are only a few species of staphylococcus that positive for the coagulase test (see table below), and s. Wikipedia wiki staphylococcus "imx0m" url? Q webcache. Epidermidis, which is considered to be a universal colonizer and part of pan microbiota. The aerobic catalase positive gram cocci present many taxonomic problems which must be resolved before a stable system of nomenclature can 12 nov 2014 they are opportunistic pathogens lack the virulence factors associated with sthere more than 30 species cons. Several manual and automated methods based on phenotypic characteristics have been developed for the identification of staphylococci (12, 24). Aureus is the most common. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelfstaphylococcus bookshelf. The term staphylococcus, generally used for all the species, refers to cells'. The boundaries of the species, whereby m sort them, are made by men. The characterization of the subdivisions is presented in a quantitative way. Distribution of staphylococcus species among human clinical identification a variety by matrix microbewiki. The coagulase negative staphylococci (cns) are now known to comprise over 30 other species. Among these there are some salient peculiarities. Biochemical characteristics of staphylococcus species human not all aureus strains are equally pathogenic distribution coagulase positive staphylococci in humans and a new silver. In fact, these different species can swap genes distribution in healthy hosts. Not only salt resistant, staphylococcus is always facultatively anaerobic. Human isolates 17 jul 2009 one of the important open questions in staphylococcal biology is whether molecular determinants for infection and colonization are shared or separate. Staphylococci colonizers and pathogens of human skin medscape. Staphylococcus list of prokaryotic names with standing in. The cns are common commensals of skin, although some species can cause infections s. Differences were observed between strains within a species from the same source and different sources. Identification of staphylococcus species, micrococcus species and an overview 22a identification biology libretexts. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelf staphylococcus wikipedia en. The taxonomy of these coagulase negative staphylococci (cons) fall into clusters based on 16s rrna sequences18saprophyticus are the there at least 30 other species staphylococci, all which lack this enzyme. Unfortunately, these systems have their limitations, mostly due to phenotypic differences between strains from the same species (6, 10, 19, 21). Biochemically, a principle difference between the two 21 apr 2016 run coagulase test there is linked exercise for this. Larlettae, of arlette; Named for arlette van de kerckhove, who has studied this and related species many years. Differe
Views: 3 new sparky
Regulating T Helper 17 Immunity - Wendy Huang, UCSD
Regulating T Helper 17 Immunity: From Serum Amyloid to RNA Helicase and its Associated Long Non-coding RNAs Speaker: Wendy Huang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, UC San Diego
From protein folding to cognition: a serendipitous path of discovery
From protein folding to cognition: a serendipitous path of discovery Air date: Wednesday, April 19, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:02:22 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series A screen for small-molecule modulators of the unfolded protein response yielded ISRIB, a drug-like compound that with high efficacy renders cells insensitive to translational inhibition by phosphorylation of eIF2. ISRIB is an activator of eIF2B, eIF2's guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and a cognitive enhancer in rodents, significantly improving long-term memory of wild-type animals in behavioral assays. Dr. Walter is the winner of the 2014 Lasker Award, 2014 Shaw Prize, and 2015 Vilcek Prize. Author: Peter Walter, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at University of California, San Francisco; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23234
Views: 872 nihvcast
Jared Leadbetter (Caltech) 1: Termites and Their Symbiotic Gut Microbes
https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/termite-gut/ Talk Overview: Leadbetter begins his seminar by comparing the biological diversity in the gut of the termite to the diversity found in the Sargasso Sea. The hindgut of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis has one of the highest densities of microbes found on earth and includes bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes of all shapes and sizes. Protozoa in the termite gut breakdown the polysaccharides in wood to produce acetate; a food source for the termite. The breakdown of wood also produces H2 and CO2. Archaea in the gut convert the H2 and CO2 to methane, while bacteria compete to convert the H2 and CO2 to more acetate thus reducing methane production. Leadbetter and his colleagues were the first to identify and successfully culture acetogenic spirochetes from the termite gut. They have since found gut bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and producing protein. Using genetics, Leadbetter is now studying the diversity and evolution of termites and their gut bacteria. Speaker Biography: Jared Leadbetter was an undergraduate biology student at Goucher College when he attended a summer course on microbial diversity at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. It was here that he first became fascinated with the amazing environment of the termite gut. Leadbetter went on to study termite gut microbes for his PhD at Michigan State University and as a post-doc at the University of Iowa. Currently, Leadbetter is a professor of Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Science and Engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He is also co-director, with Dianne Newman, of the Marine Biological Lab’s summer course on Microbial Diversity. Using physiological, chemical and molecular genetics techniques, Leadbetter’s lab strives to understand the symbiotic relationship between termites and their diverse gut microbes. A better understanding of how termite gut microbes limit methane production and how they break down material such as lignin and cellulose may help reduce methane production by cows and improve the production of biofuels.
Views: 6418 iBiology
Demystifying Medicine 2016: The Oral Microbiome Meets Cell Biology and Periodontal Disease
Demystifying Medicine 2016: The Oral Microbiome Meets Cell Biology and Periodontal Disease Air date: Tuesday, March 29, 2016, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:46:59 Description: Demystifying Medicine is an annual course from January to May designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. The course includes presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research, primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, fellows, and staff. All are invited. For more information go to https://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov/ Author: Niki Moutsopoulos, D.D.S., Ph.D., NIDCR, NIH, Robert Palmer, Ph.D., NIDCR, NIH and Alex Valm, PhD, NICHD, NIH Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19580
Views: 886 nihvcast
Michael Pollan: "Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation" | Talks at Google
In "Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation," Michael Pollan explores the previously uncharted territory of his own kitchen. Here, he discovers the enduring power of the four classical elements—fire, water, air, and earth— to transform the stuff of nature into delicious things to eat and drink. Apprenticing himself to a succession of culinary masters, Pollan learns how to grill with fire, cook with liquid, bake bread, and ferment everything from cheese to beer. In the course of his journey, he discovers that the cook occupies a special place in the world, standing squarely between nature and culture. Both realms are transformed by cooking, and so, in the process, is the cook.
Views: 103669 Talks at Google